The Rise of Mobile Gambling Is Leaving People Ruined and Unable to Quit (2023)

It didn’t get bad for Jason until recently, when gambling on his phone became both available and socially acceptable.

For most of his life, he had enjoyed betting money here and there—say, during poker with friends as a teen and on the occasional casino trip. He even occasionally bet on sports through foreign-based companies.

None of it ever seemed or felt like much of a problem to him—that is, until the pandemic. The previous year, his home state of Illinois had legalized sports betting and expanded casino gambling, flooding the state with advertisements. It didn’t take long before Jason was hearing about gambling “all day every day,” he said. When he started to go through personal issues at home in 2020, he found himself at the casino trying to burn off some steam.

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Soon enough, however, he preferred online gambling. The casinos, he came to believe, were less efficient—“too much non-gambling time,” he said—and led to questions about where he had been. By comparison, his phone allowed him to be “100 percent plugged in” from anywhere, without people asking questions. “I could do everything you could do at a casino on my phone,” he said. But, he added, “I didn’t have to explain where I was or anything like that. I didn't have to answer to anybody.”

“Being able to just sit in bed and go on my phone and gamble made it almost impossible to stop.”

Unlike sports betting, online casino gambling remained illegal in Illinois, and Jason wasn’t sure if the online games he was playing were legal or not. “But there was never any red tape to get past in order to play those games,” he said.

Regardless of the legality, the growing prevalence of gambling in society helped him legitimize his habit to himself. It felt less “seedy,” he said, even if he would gamble until three in the morning while his kids slept “and then wake up and do it again.” By this year, Jason didn’t go a day without gambling.

“I felt like I had to be gambling at all times,” he said.

He would ultimately blow through “a couple hundred thousand dollars” before admitting he had become a problem gambler in May. Still, Jason considers himself “a slightly better case than average.” Since he joined Gamblers Anonymous, he’s heard stories of people losing homes and living out of their car.

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(Video) What the Gambling Industry Doesn’t Want You To Know | Informer

In the U.S. this century, gambling has become more wholly legitimized, released from the confines of Atlantic City and Las Vegas and into the broader culture. Gambling advertisements litter the country, and more than 20 states now allow casinos, compared to just nine in 2001. Roughly the same number have legalized online sports betting and more people are pushing for legal online casinos as well.

Politicians say the legalization of gambling provides states with much-needed additional revenue and allows the government to more adequately oversee gambling and responsibly help those who develop issues. These arguments, as well as ones against prohibitionary schemes generally, are difficult to refute in theory; in practice, it’s not yet clear whether state agencies are taking their oversight commitments as seriously as they should.

Do you have insight into the online gambling industry? How has it affected your life? We want to hear from you. From a non-work device, contact our reporter at maxwell.strachan@vice.com or via Signal at 310-614-3752 for extra security.

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The omnipresence of gambling and gambling-like activities has made financial catastrophe a few clicks away for anyone with a phone. Experts increasingly see the simultaneous rise of online sports betting, online casinos (legal or not), cryptocurrency trading, and day trading as the same root thing—gambling—with the same root issues.

Often, they even involve the same people. Survey data out of the National Council on Problem Gambling last year found a significant correlation between people who trade on a weekly basis and gamble as well. “There's a big overlap there,” said Keith Whyte, the executive director of the organization. The true extent of the issue is only now starting to emerge and is in need of additional study, said Lucas Trautman, the medical director of Oxford Treatment Center in Mississippi and a psychiatrist who has helped people with addictive disorders including gambling.

“It's blown up under our nose,” Trautman said.

Cindi M. has certainly noticed a lot of people like Jason coming to meetings recently. A member of Gamblers Anonymous who now serves as the public relations chair for the group’s board of trustees, she said there’s been a dramatic increase in the number of young men developing compulsive gambling issues and showing up to meetings since online sports gambling became legal in Illinois three years ago.

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The effect on young people—and particularly young men—has been noticeable to Cindi, whose own sons have told her that all their friends gamble these days.(After Motherboard published this piece, Cindi asked that we remove her surname so she was not in violation of her program’s rules.)

(Video) My Gambling Addiction Story || Rock Bottom to Successful Entrepreneur

That lines up with additional survey data from the National Council on Problem Gambling, which has found that over 40 percent of people ages 18-44 gambled online last year—compared to just 21 percent of people ages 45-54—and that over a quarter of them increased the amount they played during the pandemic.

“They have access to it 24/7 in the palm of their hands. The temptation is always there.”

“They have access to it 24/7 in the palm of their hands,” Cindi said. “The temptation is always there. You can stay away from casinos and racetracks but you can't stop using your phone.”

That has made it easy for people like Jason to develop gambling problems and harder for them to resist the impulse to place another big bet, according to Whyte.

“It's pretty conclusively established in the gambling literature that ease of access is a risk factor for the development of gambling problems,” Whyte said. “Ease of access alone doesn't make doesn't make someone a gambling addict. But it certainly can contribute to an increase in the rate and severity.”

The ease of access is clear and growing. In January, the first month mobile sports gambling became legal in New York, people wagered a record $1.6 billion online, more than any other state in its opening month. But Ashley Owen, a team leader at the NYC Problem Gambling Resource Center, funded by the New York State Office of Addiction Services and Supports, still has trouble convincing people to take gambling issues seriously. Part of the issue, she said, is that problem gambling has become harder to detect. People with gambling problems less often exhibit physical symptoms compared to people with substance abuse issues. And now, with the rise of mobile gambling, people can gamble in the privacy of their own home without their loved ones knowing, which has “altered the landscape significantly,” Owen said.

“We call it the hidden addiction,” she continued. “As long as you have a smartphone, you have access to all sorts of gambling at your fingertips.”

One middle-aged man in the Chicago area— who asked that Motherboard not use his name as his job gives him access to clients’ personal information—was able to hide the true extent of his online gambling addiction from his wife until they wanted to get a new patio.

“Everything being at your fingertips was just terrible.”

The problem had begun when the Chicago man lost one of his jobs early in the pandemic and needed extra income to support his wife and three kids. “I got three kids. So when one of my jobs went away, that was a big hole in our budget,” he said. “It was pretty tough for me. Like, where the heck am I going to get this money?” That’s when a friend introduced him to an online poker app where people could host games. At first, he was open with his wife about his play, since nothing he was doing was too notable. Every once in a while, she’d even see a deposit for a couple hundred bucks in their bank account.

But the accessibility of the gambling games made it difficult to stop. “Everything being at your fingertips was just terrible,” he said. Soon, he was playing during work and thought about gambling so much he could barely sleep. “I'd be waiting for the next table to be opened up in the morning by the poker guys,” he said. Sometimes, he found himself physically shaking. “You get to this point where you just can't stop, and you're thinking all the time, I just got to go back on.” he said.

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(Video) The Life of a Gambling Addict

He also became “really, really secretive.” He opened up his own checking account and multiple credit cards. He went into his payroll account and made sure to take out an extra $200 every two weeks. He even took out a loan to feed his online habit.

“I spun this web that was just awful,” he said.

Then, they applied for a loan to install a new patio in their backyard. The man knew they were going to pull their credit. What he didn’t realize was that they’d give his wife a copy of his. When she saw it, “she almost went insane—and understandably,” the man said. “I thought it was over. I totally thought my life and my marriage was over, and that I was gonna lose my kids.”

“We call it the hidden addiction. As long as you have a smartphone, you have access to all sorts of gambling at your fingertips.”

His wife stayed with him, and the man installed an anti-gambling app on his phone to try and stop himself from gambling online. The man also joined Gamblers Anonymous, where he was shocked by the number of young people he met there. “I can't believe that I see all these young 20-somethings coming in,” he said. “It's very disheartening.”

Nick, a 21-year-old in California, is one of those young people. He had first gambled as a young teen, when he visited family on the East Coast and one of his cousins introduced him to legal online sports gambling. Nick wasn’t old enough to gamble then, but he found it easy enough to get around the systems the companies had set up. “It really wasn't that hard to create an account under my dad's name,” he said. By the time he was a senior in high school, Nick was gambling on his laptop in class. Then, when he went to college, the situation devolved as he moved from online sports gambling to a bookie he could text at all hours.

“For me, being able to just sit in bed and go on my phone and gamble made it almost impossible to stop,” Nick said. “I can't just get rid of my phone.”

“I can't believe that I see all these young 20-somethings coming in,” one member of Gamblers Anonymous said.

He’d stay up until 4 a.m. gambling on his phone then go to class at 8 a.m. A straight-A student in high school, he earned a 2.2 GPA his first semester of college When Nick eventually realized he had a problem and joined Gamblers Anonymous, he was one of the youngest people there.

(Video) Bright Lights: what one woman's 25-year gambling addiction really cost

He couldn’t help but feel a bit different than the older people he was meeting. For one thing, unlike a lot of them, he had never entered a casino.

Taking a page from social media and online shopping sites, mobile gambling sites employ “very, very aggressive marketing” tactics that can be hard for problem gamblers to escape, according to Keith Whyte, the executive director at the National Council on Problem Gambling. Third-party data collection, for example, allows the gambling industry to create customized, alluring offers designed to get people to come back and spend more, he said.

Numerous studies have indicated that phone addiction has become prevalent in society, especially among people under 30, but there isn’t yet even a clear and agreed-upon conceptual framework for analyzing the problem of gambling in the mobile-phone era. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association recategorized gambling disorder as “similar to substance-related disorders” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. But it’s also proposed internet gaming disorder for potential addition as a distinct disorder, and cited a need for further research.

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“The fact that it's on the phone is so crucial in the cultivation of an addictive disorder,” said Trautman, the psychiatrist who treats people with gambling disorders, of online gambling.

Whyte has been trying to get politicians to take his issue seriously since 1998. These days, he’s seeing even less interest from Washington D.C. in talking about the downsides of gambling. When they do talk to him, the politicians and policymakers are often still prone to place the blame on the individual, who they see as immoral or weak-willed, he said.

“They're still trapped in our traditional, moral, and religious cultural views around gambling,” he said.

Part of the problem comes from the fact that so many gamblers struggle quietly and alone, making problem gambling seem like less of an issue. Less than 1 percent of people with a gambling problem seek help, according to Whyte.

But another is that sports gambling looks increasingly like good politics. According to recent polls, as many as two-thirds of Americans believe sports betting should be legal, and the tax revenue can be substantial. Illinois has already generated over $100 million for itself, and New York this year has already earned $267 million in tax revenue from sports betting. The money will help fund education programs, as well as problem gambling prevention, treatment, and recovery services, though so-called “sin taxes” have been criticized as regressive in nature.

“I could do everything you could do at a casino on my phone.”

Since he stopped gambling in May, Jason has noticed with fresh eyes just how prevalent the gambling industry has become. Nationally, entire sports shows are now dedicated to gambling, and others don’t go long without mentioning an exciting potential parlay bet. Gambling commercials play all the time on the radio and when he watches sports, and the leagues themselves have signed official partnerships with companies like FanDuel and DraftKings.

“It is everywhere now,” Jason said. “It's kind of disgusting when you start to look at it from the outside in.”

This post has been updated to remove Cindi M.’s full surname.

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FAQs

What is the root cause of gambling addiction? ›

What Causes an Addiction to Gambling? Many factors can contribute to a gambling addiction, including desperation for money, the desire to experience thrills and highs, the social status associated with being a successful gambler, and the entertaining atmosphere of the mainstream gambling scene.

Why you should stay away from gambling? ›

Gambling can stimulate the brain's reward system much like drugs or alcohol can, leading to addiction. If you have a problem with compulsive gambling, you may continually chase bets that lead to losses, use up savings and create debt. You may hide your behavior and even turn to theft or fraud to support your addiction.

What are the long term effects of gambling? ›

In a study of pathological gamblers, Petry et al found rates of mood disorder to be 49.6%, anxiety disorder 41.3%, personality disorder 60.8%, alcohol use disorder 73.2%, drug use disorder 38.1% and nicotine dependence 60.4%.

How does gambling addiction affect society? ›

Financial harms

We identified gambling-related debt as a crucial harm that can lead to other harms such as relationship problems, physical and mental health problems, and crime. The financial difficulties and debt experienced by gamblers and affected others were often severe.

What is the personality of a gambler? ›

Summary: Disorganized and emotionally unstable, poorly adapted, suffering from alcohol problems, impulsive, or with a "globally adapted" personality. These are the features of the four diagnosed types of compulsive gamblers identified by researchers in Spain.

What gambling does to the brain? ›

When we have a gambling win, the brain releases a feel-good chemical called dopamine. But when we gamble often, our brain gets used to the dopamine, which makes that winning feeling difficult to achieve. Consequently, we may have to gamble more and more to feel the same level of pleasure.

Does gambling change your personality? ›

Still, some studies suggest that negative life events can affect and change personality characteristics (e.g., increase neuroticism), which suggest that gambling problems may also lead to personality changes (16).

Is it impossible to stop gambling? ›

It is difficult to manage the gambling problem without also addressing the other issues such as substance abuse and mental health disorders. If the co-occurring disorders are left untreated, the chances of recovery are minimal.

Why do humans love gambling? ›

People gamble for many reasons: the adrenaline rush to win money, socialise or escape from worries or stress. However, for some people, gambling can get out of control. If you find yourself betting more than you can afford to lose, borrowing money, or feeling stressed and anxious about gambling, you may have a problem.

What gambling does to your mental health? ›

People with a gambling problem are twice as likely to be depressed than people without a gambling problem, and are at significantly higher risk of experiencing psychological distress. It can also work the other way: depression may lead someone to gamble in the first place.

What are the 3 types of gamblers? ›

There are three common types of gambler, the professional gambler, the social gambler, and the problem gambler. Be aware that the problem gambler will often believe themselves to be, or pretend to be, a social or professional gambler.

Is gambling considered a mental illness? ›

It is classed as an impulse-control disorder. It is included in the American Psychiatric Association (APA's) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fifth edition (DSM-5). Problem gambling is harmful to psychological and physical health.

Who benefits from gambling? ›

Key Takeaways. Gambling benefits everyone: players, gambling venues, and governments. One of the most positive effects of gambling for players is that it helps them develop their skills. Experienced gamblers know how to approach gambling and earn money regularly.

What is the solution of gambling? ›

Three main ways exist to treat gambling problems, including psychotherapy, medication and support groups. Cognitive behavioral therapy and behavior therapy help a person identify thought patterns that lead to and support a gambling problem, and replace them with healthier beliefs.

What are three signs that someone may have a gambling problem? ›

Signs of a gambling problem are lying about your habits, wagering more than you can afford, and emotional side effects. People with gambling problems may borrow or steal money to gamble, gamble until all their money is gone, and attempt to recover losses with more gambling.

Are gamblers narcissists? ›

Gambling disorder was associated with grandiose narcissism and an inability to regulate emotions. That is, addicted gamblers had higher levels of grandiose narcissism than the control group. In particular, they were more likely to present themselves as being concerned with others to support a grandiose self- image.

Are gamblers happy? ›

The results of analytic research also showed that the elderly who gambled recreationally were much happier, less depressed, and had higher self-reported health than non-gambling counterparts. More than that, the study found that the happiness level of the participants went up while they gambled.

How do you discipline a gambler? ›

Discipline is built through repetition, and the only way to do so is to constantly play the casino games you're interested in. Of course, this doesn't mean spending huge amounts of money just so you can get more practice hours in the casino. You can also put in work outside of the gambling house.

What happens to the brain when you stop gambling? ›

Gambling withdrawal occurs when the brain is deprived of a dopamine stimulating substance for a longer period. The absence of this stimulant leads to gambling withdrawal symptoms, as the brain attempts to reconfigure itself to its old state and undo the altered mental wiring.

How can I stop gambling forever? ›

10 tips to stop gambling addiction
  1. Plan ahead to avoid boredom. ...
  2. Live your life one day at a time. ...
  3. Do something completely different. ...
  4. Rekindle an old hobby. ...
  5. Be especially vigilant leading up to special events. ...
  6. Find ways that help you cope better with stress. ...
  7. Remind yourself that to gamble is to lose.
3 Feb 2016

Why is gambling so fun? ›

Everyone experiences a high when they win. Winning and the anticipation of winning trigger the release of chemicals in the brain, such as dopamine, which produces that high feeling.

Are gamblers compulsive liars? ›

Compulsive lying is one of the symptoms of compulsive or pathological gamblers. These gamblers are addicted to gambling, and lying becomes second nature to them.

What are four reasons why people gamble? ›

Some common reasons people gamble are:
  • To Win Money. There is an opportunity to come out "ahead of the game". ...
  • For Recreation. ...
  • To Support Charity. ...
  • To Escape Problems. ...
  • Mood Alteration.

What are five signs or symptoms of gambling addiction? ›

Signs and Symptoms of Gambling Addiction

Chasing losses by gambling more money in an attempt to win back what was lost. Betting more money than one can afford to lose. Lying to friends and family about gambling habits or hiding evidence of gambling. Feeling anxious, irritable, or restless when not gambling.

Is there a cure for gambling? ›

Is there a cure for gambling? No. But as with any other addiction, steps can be taken to break the hold gambling has over your life or over the lives of your loved ones. Whether you gamble all the time and cannot stop or go on binges that spiral out of control, the time to seek help is now.

What is the recovery rate for gambling addiction? ›

Sadly, it is estimated that over 80% of people who suffer from some type of gambling addiction never seek treatment, no matter how bad their problem is. Other statistics reveal that while there are people who do seek treatment for their gambling addiction, over 70% end up returning to the world of betting.

Is gambling a hobby or addiction? ›

Gambling is an addictive behavior that impacts the brain reward systems in a way similar to drugs and alcohol. Many people enjoy gambling as a hobby; in many cases, actual money doesn't even have to be involved for someone to enjoy playing an online card game or another type of activity.

What drugs cause gambling addiction? ›

Moreover, further medications, including aripiprazole, modafinil, rotigotine, sertraline, citalopram, and lamotrigine, were associated to the occurrence of gambling disorder (George et al.

How does gambling alter the brain? ›

Studies have shown that the release of dopamine during gambling occurs in brain areas similar to those activated by taking drugs of abuse. In fact, similar to drugs, repeated exposure to gambling and uncertainty produces lasting changes in the human brain.

Can gambling cause anger? ›

Statistical analysis of the results shows a higher level of anger in pathological gamblers than in controls, together with alterations in emotional processing. Severity of gambling behaviour positively correlates with alexithymia scores, state-anger and trait-anger.

Why do people with bipolar gamble? ›

People with bipolar disorder may also engage in gambling to cope with their symptoms of depression. Because gambling acts like a drug in its ability to activate the brain's reward system, the person may experience a rush or “high” whenever they're placing large bets or chasing them.

Can stress lead to gambling? ›

Gambling is often a coping mechanism for stress or low mood. If you think of your own gambling, perhaps you are more likely to gamble when you're feeling stressed out. Gambling provides a temporary escape from those uncomfortable feelings of tension, anxiety and irritation.

What are the four stages of gambling? ›

Contents
  • The Winning Phase.
  • The Losing Phase.
  • The Desperation Phase.
  • The Hopeless Phase.
12 Oct 2020

What is the most addictive gambling? ›

Electronic Gambling Machines

The Illinois Institute for Addiction Recovery considers these types of gambling - slot machines and video poker - to be the "crack cocaine" of gambling. The Institute claims that it is their immediate gratification that makes video poker and slot machines so very addictive.

What skills do gamblers need? ›

But I've collected 7 skills you need to develop to be a successful gambler no matter how you define it.
  • 1 – Mindset. The most important skill is to develop the correct mindset. ...
  • 2 – Basic Math. ...
  • 3 – Bankroll Management. ...
  • 4 – Analytical Abilities. ...
  • 5 – Observation. ...
  • 6 – Patience. ...
  • 7 – Memory.
22 Mar 2017

Does a gambling addiction get worse over time? ›

Gambling disorders tend to develop and get worse over a period of years when people with an addiction continually increase the amount and the frequency of their bets.

Is gambling a genetic trait? ›

A small proportion of studies indicated that gambling is primarily influenced by genetic factors. For example, Beaver et al. (2010) found that genetic factors explained approximately 70% of the variance in gambling. Other studies indicated a moderate genetic influence on gambling.

Is gambling a symptom of PTSD? ›

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gambling disorder can go hand in hand. In fact, people with PTSD can be at risk of developing a wide range of unhealthy behaviors, such as deliberate self-harm, eating disorder behavior, or substance abuse.

Does the government make money from gambling? ›

The state tax take

NSW and Victoria have the highest tax dependence on gambling, raking in an estimated $2 billion and $1.8 billion respectively. A report on gambling by the Productivity Commission several years ago put this in percentage terms, showing Victoria relying on gambling for 13% of its revenue.

Is gambling healthy for our society? ›

Problems with gambling can lead to bankruptcy, crime, domestic abuse, and even suicide. A single bankruptcy could potentially impact 17 people. The National Council on Problem Gambling estimates that gambling addictions cost the U.S. $6.7 billion annually, and some experts believe that cost could be even higher.

How do you stay married to a gambler? ›

How to Confront a Gambler
  1. Urge your husband or wife to get professional help.
  2. Be assertive so that they know you're serious.
  3. Do not make threats.
  4. Follow through on every point you make.
  5. Focus on the issue at hand, not past behavior.
  6. Tell them you will no longer bail them out of their gambling debts.
11 Dec 2020

What is the most serious form of problem gambling? ›

The most serious form of problem gambling is gambling disorder, which is characterized by “persistent and recurrent maladaptive behavior that disrupts personal, family or vocational pursuits” according to the American Psychiatric Association – DSM-V.

What are the 2 main questions to identify a gambler? ›

Lie / Bet Questioning for Gamblers
  • Question 1: Have you developed a habit of, or do you feel the need to increase your bets, each time that you gamble. ...
  • Question 2: Have you ever been dishonest about how often you gamble, or how much money you've spent while gambling.
24 Jun 2016

What is the root of gambling? ›

The root cause of gambling addiction starts at an emotional level, wherein addicts use gambling as a means for coping with daily life stressors and pressures. This gambling addiction fact becomes most apparent when the activity turns into an obsessive behavior.

What causes people to gamble? ›

People gamble for many reasons: the adrenaline rush to win money, socialise or escape from worries or stress. However, for some people, gambling can get out of control. If you find yourself betting more than you can afford to lose, borrowing money, or feeling stressed and anxious about gambling, you may have a problem.

What causes excessive gambling? ›

People who gamble compulsively often have substance misuse problems, personality disorders, depression or anxiety. Compulsive gambling may also be associated with bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Is gambling a brain disorder? ›

Pathological gambling was first recognized as a psychiatric disorder in 1980 and was grouped initially in the Impulse Control Disorders.

Why do men love gambling? ›

For entertainment reasons – because they like the feeling, to get that rush or “high”, or because it makes them feel good. For coping reasons – for someone to forget their worries, because they feel more self-confident, or because it helps when they are feeling nervous or depressed.

What are the 3 signs of problem gambling? ›

Because of this, we know there are warning signs you should be looking out for. Lying to hide your behaviour is a core symptom of any addiction, including gambling.
...
GAMBLING MORE THAN YOU CAN LOSE
  • YOUR EMOTIONS ARE NEGATIVELY AFFECTED. ...
  • YOU ARE OBSESSESED WITH GAMBLING. ...
  • YOUR LOVED ONES THINK YOU HAVE A PROBLEM.

Who is most likely to develop a gambling addiction? ›

This includes problem gambling, which is estimated to affect as many as 1% of the population.
...
Who is most likely to have a gambling problem?
  • Five times more likely to be male than female.
  • More likely to be unemployed than in work, studying or retired.
  • Most likely to be aged 25 to 34 (if male)
23 Jan 2020

Is there medication to stop gambling? ›

Clinically, several medications are available in the United States that have been used in treating gambling disorder, including naltrexone (an opioid antagonist), lithium (a mood stabilizer) and a variety of other antidepressant and antipsychotic medications.

What are the five types of gamblers? ›

There are five common types of gambler, the professional gambler, the social gambler, the binge gambler, the action problem gambler and the problem gambler.

What are the negative effects of gambling to people? ›

reduced spending money. reduced savings. feelings of regret or shame about their gambling. spending less time with people they care about.

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